William Hartnell: The Hero and His Colleges

by Sean F. Roney

May 25, 2000

Copyright 1999-2000 Sean F. Roney


Section I: Lost to the Mists
Section II: William Hartnell's Life
Section III: Hartnell's Colegio
Section IV: Salinas' Junior College
Section V: The Heroic Namesake
Appendix I: Bibliography
Appendix II: Further Information


When I first came to Hartnell College in June 1997 I had no idea who William Hartnell was. I didn't find out who Hartnell was until September of 1999. I had known that Hartnell College was named after an important man, but I didn't know what the man did to deserve having a college named after him.

I wasn't particularly interested in finding out anything about William Hartnell until the Fall Semester of 1999, when I decided to find out more about why the college had become his namesake. Being a lover of history, I just had to find out more about this man. At the time, the only source of information I knew of was a book by Susanna Dakin, which I quickly read. After conducting quite a bit of research I was able to find quite a bit more information, especially in the vaults of the Monterey County Historical Society.

Personal interest was what drove me to seek more information about William Hartnell, and continues to be to this day. In addition, I also wanted to increase local community awareness about Hartnell. People are beginning to forget the hero, with disturbing consequences. It seems that the facts about William Hartnell are being ignored and the details of his personal life have been misrepresented to the such a degree that his history and memory are being tarnished. I hope through my efforts the public will learn the truth and remember the history of Hartnell.

SECTION I: Lost to the Mists

William Edward Petty Hartnell was a significant hero who had a profound effect on not only Monterey County history, but California history as well. While he wasn't one of the great political or war heroes from his era, his deeds earned him a special place of honor in history. From starting the Pacific Coast's first mercantile business to establishing the first junior college in California, Hartnell played a significant role in the course of history.

Hartnell Community College was named after William Hartnell to honor him. However, Hartnell was such a special man that he has more than a college named after him. Hartnell Gulch Park in Monterey also bears his name. This is a popular location among tourists who wish to take a scenic walk. Monterey further honors Hartnell with Hartnell Street. In Salinas, Hartnell Park, just three blocks away from the campus, honors him. Hartnell Road just south of Salinas is also named after him. All of these places bear his name, and rightly so.

Hartnell became a legend in his own time by making significant contributions to California. He earned a reputation as a one man greeting committee for travelers, diplomats, and soldiers. During his life, and for a period after, his name was a historic legacy that California was proud of. Sadly, time has eroded the community's memory, and the name William Hartnell is known only by historians.

Now that the name of Hartnell is lost in what seems to be fog, local newspapers are printing incorrect information about him. The Rustler, a newspaper from King City, California once wrote that William Hartnell built Salinas Junior College in 1920 at the present site of Salinas High School. The Panther Sentinel, Hartnell College's own student newspaper, incorrectly said that Hartnell named his new school after himself. In a special 80th Anniversary Catalogue for Hartnell College, a brief history of William Hartnell states that he arrived in California in 1828, but the actual date was 1822. These three incorrect pieces of information are just a sample of the misinformation being circulated as actual facts. The students at Hartnell College have little or no idea who or what their college is named after. Few are even aware that Hartnell was a person. The same community that loved him during his lifetime has almost completely forgotten him and what he did for their community, only 150 years after his death.

The problem at hand is the name William Hartnell. The true man behind the name is becoming a mere shadow lost in a fog. William Hartnell is not a popular character from history, but he should be. People need to know why Hartnell College was named after William Hartnell. They also need to know what kind of man he was. The true history and his legacy must be preserved.

SECTION II: William Hartnell's Life

Hartnell College is the namesake of William Edward Petty Hartnell. In some cases, he is called Don Guillermo Arnel, because the Spanish-speaking inhabitants of California and Peru found it easier to pronounce. He was born on April 24, 1798, as William Hartnell in Backbarrow, which is in the county of Lancashire, England.

Hartnell was sent to the College of Commerce in Bremen at the age of 16, but had to leave the following year because of his father's death. William's father was the provider for the family. His death in 1815 left the family with no estate. Young William Hartnell was forced to find a job in order to support himself and his family. He cared very much about the welfare of his mother and siblings, and worked hard to help them live a good life.

His efforts to secure a job prompted his uncle, Edward Petty Hartnell, to introduce him to James Brotherston, who wanted Hartnell to work for the South American branch of his firm as the bookkeeper and accountant. He agreed, and was put under the directions of John Begg & Co. for three years. Arriving in Santiago, Peru, in 1819, Hartnell quickly left with John Begg to open a branch in Lima, Peru. During Hartnell's first days in South America, he kept a letter from a friend of his named Lene Muller. In letters from his friends, it is documented that she called herself "Madame Hartnell" after he left. Calling oneself Madame was not a light matter, as it basically meant she was calling herself "Mrs. Hartnell." However, no records show a marriage or children. All Hartnell left behind was an infatuated young woman who played with the name for a short period.

It was in the Peru office that Hartnell met Hugh McCulloch. His meeting up with McCulloch would not only play a significant role in his life, but would make sure the course of history favored Hartnell. He persuaded the reluctant Hartnell to become partners in a hide and tallow trade in California. The two men became partners on March 21, 1822, contracting for five years, with a stipulation that they must remain partners for at least three years. It was at this same time that the two got their new names, "Macula and Arnel," which was easier for the Spanish-speakers to pronounce. Hartnell adopted the moniker later in life.

The two men arrived in the capitol city of Monterey, California, in 1822. Mexico had just declared independence two months prior to their arrival. The first order of business the two took care of was establishing business with the missions of California, since they were a treasure trove of cattle. The two men set out to collect as many 3-year contracts as they could, but Hartnell's good business tactics made his efforts more successful. He was able to acquire all but two signatures from all of the northern missions. One was Mission San Francisco, which was still under construction. The other was Mission San Rafael, which had nothing to trade.

The two men were two of the thirteen foreigners in California at the time. Hartnell's easy-going manner was able to win over Governor Pablo Vicente Sola, who gave them the right to do business and live in California. Sola was followed by Governor Don Luis Arguello, who gave them the right to trade in any port along the California coast. This was a valuable right, as all other traders could only use the ports in Monterey and San Diego. In addition, he gave them the land needed to build facilities for business and living quarters. Hartnell's initial success proved that he fit in well with California's society, and was a great choice for a businessman there. However, McCulloch was called back to duty in South America, which left Hartnell as the lone representative of their business partnership.

During the first year in California Hartnell was doing great and the future looked promising. However, Hartnell's successful world came to a crash when he received a letter from his sister, Mary, telling him about the business failures of their uncle Edward. Hartnell had a strong attachment to his uncle Edward. Edward was the man responsible for introducing him to the world of opportunity he was enjoying. Hartnell also felt a bit of unrepented guilt. As a teen he had stolen some money from his uncle, a secret which he had confessed only to his sister. This guilt he felt due to this small secret against his life-long hero led to serious depression. As a result, Hartnell began to drink heavily which impeded his own business success.

Hartnell was a man of the Church of England, but during his depression he was befriended by Father Luis Martinez, a Catholic priest. Martinez knew that Hartnell was suffering greatly inside, and that as a good Christian he should help him with his problem. Martinez talked Hartnell into taking some time off from his life's duties to meditate about his situation and to pray for help. Hartnell was able to see the error of his ways, and decided the best thing for him to do would be to make a fresh start. He had become enlightened and learned from his mistakes.

This enlightenment caused him to adopt Catholicism as his theological doctrine. On October 13, 1824, Hartnell was baptized in Mission San Carlos. It was at this time that he added his uncle's name, Edward Petty, to his own. The first step to making a fresh, clean start in his life was a dramatic one. He would not only change his faith, but his name to honor his most beloved relative.

On April 30, 1825, Hartnell married 16-year-old Maria Teresa de la Guerra. She was the daughter of Don Jose de la Guerra y Noriega. Jose de la Guerra was known as the richest man in the area at the time, and the most influential man in the Santa Barbara district. The wedding invitation was extended to any person who wished to attend, and was celebrated with huge fiestas. The newlyweds moved to Monterey in June of the same year. During twenty-five years of marriage the Hartnell's had 19 children and adopted five additional children. Unfortunately, only thirteen of his children were alive at the time of his death.

After this time, the hide and tallow business went downhill for Hartnell. Governor Jose Echeandia revoked all of Hartnell's rights to trade in California ports other than San Diego and Monterey. This was in part due to the fact that he was closing off all ports but San Diego and Monterey. At this time, the 3-year contracts with the missions ended and higher-paying competitors were arriving, but many of them continued to trade with Hartnell because he was such a friendly businessman.

Hartnell started the booming industry of hide and tallow trading among the missions. The boom in hide output from California was so high that hides were sometimes referred to as "California dollars." This is a significant part of California history, but it was not to be a career for Hartnell. John Begg & Co. had failed in 1826, and that crushed Hartnell's hide and tallow business. Hartnell was left to pay his portion of the company's debt, which amounted to $4,087. Additionally, he was to pay for the business expenses in California which amounted to a total debt of $18,885. Hartnell kept to good business ethics and paid off the debts. However, he was only able to maintain his hide and tallow business with the help of his father-in-law.

Hartnell was a good man who did not use forced labor to complete any project he needed, even his school. September 15, 1829 was when Mexico abolished slavery, but Hartnell already worked without slaves. Indian servants that worked on various projects and tasks were municipal employees. Hartnell had given the Mexican government a loan of $7,800 in 1827 to pay for these employees. Even when slavery was still legal in Mexico, Hartnell was willing to pay for help. The Mexican government never paid back the loan, even though Hartnell had structured it carefully to make sure it would not hurt Mexican foreign trade.

Hartnell was virtually the one-man greeting committee of California. On January 1, 1827, British Captain Frederick Beechy landed in Monterey. Hartnell let Beechy and his officers stay in his house during their trip to Monterey. Beechy recommended that Hartnell take up the position of British Vice-Consul in California. Hartnell served unofficially in this post for a short time, but it was never made official. When the Russian-American Fur Company sent Kyrill Khlebnikov in 1833, Hartnell discussed with him the possibilities of starting trade with Russia. The Mexican government refused the opportunity and forced Hartnell to end his ties with Russia in 1836.

Hartnell did not become a citizen until eight years into life in California. In 1830 he finally decided to become a citizen in order to own land. His conversion to Catholicism, and his marriage to Teresa, having occurred so many years prior, were not part of this movement for citizenship.

Hartnell served as a peace keeper in Monterey during troubled times. Both Hartnell and Jose del la Guerra opposed revolutionary action when there was turmoil in California when it had multiple men claiming to be governor. He had even been elected to be captain of a "foreign company" of 50 peace-keeping men from January to April of 1932. His easy-going manner made him go with the flow of things, but never resist nor cause change. Because of this, he was a great choice for a neutral leader to keep peace in troubled times.

In May 1833, the brothers Feliciano and Mariano Soberanes went into a ranching partnership with Hartnell. By this time his hide and tallow trading had gone under, and he was glad to take the chance to enter a new career. In December of 1833, secured from the Spanish government, 2,971 acres of the Rancho del Alisal were ceded to Hartnell from the brothers. The title was made official by Governor Figueroa on June 26, 1834. This property was located 20 miles east of Monterey, which was approximately four miles southeast of the modern-day city of Salinas. Hartnell named his new property El Patrocinio de San Jose, which meant that he was putting his land under the patronage of Saint Joseph. Hartnell's adobe house was built on this Alisal Rancho, and it is said to be the first house in the country to have glass windows. There was also a silver mine on Hartnell's property which was the first mine discovered in California.

Hartnell was a very hospitable person. At his own house, Hartnell made efforts to entertain his guests with the best shows possible. He built a grandstand on his property so that guests, family, and friends would be able to watch rodeos held on his property. Hartnell enjoyed ranching, and was good at it, but the income generated by this venture was not enough for him to quit his other jobs. He didn't want to have to hold a multitude of jobs just to live. He wanted one steady career so that he could settle down and enjoy life. He wrote to his father-in-law for advice. Don Jose suggested in a letter that Hartnell use his wealth of knowledge in his head to make money easily as a school master. On December 10, 1833, Hartnell distributed a proclamation telling the citizens of California that he would be opening a school.

When Hartnell's school failed and had to be shut down, Governor Alvarado, a cousin of Teresa, helped Hartnell with his financial troubles. He made him commissary treasurer, tax collector, and customs administrator of Monterey. This was the beginning of his political career. Though he never held a major office such as a governor, he did get put into government positions of importance.

From 1839 to 1840, Hartnell was the Visitador-General of all the secularized missions in California. He controlled all administrative duties of the missions, from San Diego up to San Fernando. Hartnell was promised a salary of $2000, but the Mexican government never paid. During his time as Visitador, Hartnell tried to improve the lives of the Indians, who were dissatisfied with the constant Mexican takeover of their land. He tried to find peace for the Indians, but he could never find an agreement that would make them permanently happy.

Hartnell had to quit in his duty as Visitador because of threats. General Mariano Vallejo imprisoned Hartnell when he came to inspect Vallejo's Mission San Francisco Solano. Hartnell had to say that Vallejo was right for feeling too privileged to have his domain searched. When preparing to tour Mission San Diego, his friend Nicolas Den wrote to him on July 7, 1840 to say that there were threats against Hartnell. The whole time he had put up with the job to fulfill a duty he felt he owed to society and to God. However, with his life becoming increasingly in danger, he resigned officially on September 7, 1840.

In February, 1845, Governor Pio Pico ended all of Hartnell's government jobs. This act against Hartnell was one of revenge. As Visitador, Hartnell had dismissed Pico from his position as administrator of Mission San Luis Rey. Hartnell's brother-in-law, Don Pablo, had to save Hartnell from financial ruin. Pablo used his influence with Pico to get Hartnell a job establishing a treasury in the city of San Francisco.

In March of 1846, a second visit to California by Captain John Fremont foretold of coming change. Fremont was on a "scientific" mission to California along with 60 armed soldiers. Hartnell allowed the men to camp on his own property from March 3 to March 5. Every day Fremont would raise the American flag, but eventually left to Sacramento and later Oregon.

Four months later, Commodore John Sloat took over Monterey and officially raised the United States flag to show they had taken the territory. Sloat immediately asked Hartnell to translate a proclamation. Hartnell was also asked to serve as an appraiser in the customhouse, surveyor, and land auctioneer, all for the United States government. Hartnell was referred to as the only Californian, native or immigrant, who could speak and write Spanish like a master of the language.

Hartnell was slightly bitter towards the Americans because he preferred the idea of California becoming a protectorate of England. He collaborated for an unknown period of time with another Englishman about getting England to make a presence in California. However, Hartnell abandoned his dreams when he saw how strong of a grip the Americans had on the territory.

The first civil election in Monterey took place on September 15, 1846. In it Hartnell was elected as one of three Alcalde Counselors. Hartnell even served in the first jury court in California. The jury spoke Spanish. The defendant spoke French, and the rest spoke English. Only because Hartnell was present was the court trial able to flow smoothly. His ability to interpret all the different languages saved the day in that court room.

In 1847, Captain Fremont asked Hartnell to translate all the important Mexican laws to English. He gave Hartnell jurisdiction in choosing which laws were pertinent. It took him a year before he could finish the laborious task, for which he earned a salary of $2000. His role as California's unofficial interpreter was the only thing that was providing him with enough money to keep his family well fed.

At the first Constitutional Convention of California, Hartnell was one of two Californians who spoke Spanish. He translated the California Constitution, making sure that California was officially a bilingual state from the start. California was the only state to recognize Spanish as the official language along with English. Had it not been for Hartnell's presence, a bilingual constitution would not have existed and a bilingual statehood would seem less official. He was also asked to translate all the laws composed by the convention. There were 1300 folios of laws, an incredible task for any person to take on. His poor health at the time made the task even more difficult. However, he cared for his family's well-being and made sure to support them. When he finally finished converting the text, Hartnell sent the laws to the Secretary of State along with an apology letter saying the delay was due to his poor health.

Hartnell's health lost the battle to sickness on February 2, 1854. He was 56 when he died. His last will and testament was written on December 6, 1850. He left almost all of his belongings to Teresa. Some personal belongings, $1600, and the documents in his private library were to be split among his boys. He also willed $1000 to be sent to his sister, Sarah. In addition to this, he willed $1600 to churches in Belfast, Ireland. In death, Hartnell stayed devoted to Catholicism. His will said that he wanted a basic funeral without pomp. He also wished to die as a Holy Roman Catholic.

SECTION III: Hartnell's Colegio

During his myriad of careers, William Hartnell founded the first junior college in California. In 1793, the King of Spain sent orders that schools should be established in California. However, funds were too low to build schools. By 1815, Mexico only had three schools at the time, including one in Monterey.

There has been much confusion over the name itself. The name of the school was El Seminario del Patroncinio de San Jose. A shorter and more commonly referred to version of the name was El Colegio de San Jose, which translates to San Jose School. The Spanish word "colegio" has been mistakenly understood to mean "college." It would also sometimes be referred to as El Colegio de Arnel, which is why some people think Hartnell named the school after himself and further confuse the matter. The use of "San Jose" in the name was a reference to the school being dedicated to Saint Joseph, and being under his patronage. He was following the dedication traditions of Catholic padres.

The purpose of the school was to prepare pupils for a university. This is exactly what modern day junior colleges (like today's Hartnell College) do with their pupils. The ages of students attending his college were not an issue. Today's Hartnell College accepts enrollment by students in the 9th grade, but can accept students from kindergarten. William Hartnell set the minimum at age 8, but his eldest student was 17, proving he did have people old enough even for today's entrance standards. The classes offered even prove that he was teaching college-level skills to his students. The algebra class he taught was the equivalent to a modern day pre-algebra class, which is a graduation requirement for Hartnell College.

In 1833 Hartnell announced that he would open a "casa de education." People argue over whether Hartnell created the school to make money or to truly educate the pupils. The truth is that he primarily wanted money, as proved by letters between Hartnell and his father in law. Tuition for the students would be $200 per annum. High, indeed, but the East Coast colleges in the United States had a $450 per annum tuition. Hartnell believed that the bargain price would attract many students. He hoped to be able to make a living by being a schoolmaster rather than having to hold multiple careers. In addition to the bargain price, Hartnell hoped that the school's proximity would get more students as rich fathers would rather send their boys to his school rather than on the long and dangerous trip to Europe or even the Sandwich Islands. Hartnell was very open with his colegio, as he wished for Indian children to attend, with their tuition paid from the Pious Fund.

On January 1, 1834, the school's announcement was celebrated by a huge fiesta. The school term began on March 11, 1834, inside of Hartnell's own house in Monterey. Later classes were moved to the Alisal Ranch. Indian workers had erected two new buildings there to be used for schooling. The larger building held the home, classroom, and chapel. The smaller building held the dormitory, kitchen, and dining room. Their location was just six miles east of modern day Salinas. Subjects available to learn at the school included: Reading and writing, Spanish, French, English, German, Latin, Arithmetic, Algebra, Bookkeeping, and Philosophy. Special attention was also to be paid to teaching Christian doctrine. Although Christian doctrine was important, Hartnell's school was California's first secular school because it did not focus on Christianity.

The fact that he had been educated in German and British universities was one of Hartnell's qualifications for teaching. He was very smart, indeed, but he also had previous teaching experience. He had tutored Juan Bautista Alvarado, a future governor of Mexican California. He also tutored the famous General Mariano Vallejo. Father Patrick Short was the best choice Hartnell could have made at the time for an assistant, because he had gone through years of missionary training. At one time he had even been the tutor to Hartnell's brother-in-law, Juan de la Guerra.

Hartnell was gone for much of the first year while he was securing a new home for his family. During his absence, Father Short and Father Bachelot, two Jesuit Fathers, taught the pupils in his absence. One of the first students was Don Pablo De La Guerra, who later served in the California Senate. Only 15 pupils were ever enrolled in the school. Four of the students were his relatives during the first year, and three the second year. Because of low turnout and absence of a high influx of new pupils, the school closed after only two years.

The importance of Hartnell's school is that it was the first actual institution of higher learning in California. Some would say that Hartnell's school was more of a private Catholic school, but its purpose being to prepare students for university made it obviously a junior college. He still struggled as long as he could to keep the school going despite impending failure.

Both Hartnell's and Short's work with educating the students was so good that the school was praised. Unfortunately, Father Short and Father Bachelot had to leave when the Mexican government began to force Spaniards to leave. Although the Fathers were natives of Ireland and served the French missions in Hawaii, they were forced to leave. To save face, Hartnell and Short agreed to come up with a more honorable reason for having to shut down the school. They announced that lack of students and funding had caused the school to discontinue in the Summer of 1836.

In 1960, an announcement by re-elected State Senator Fred Farr that he would introduce a bill to make the colegio buildings a state monument caused Marie Bardin Sconberg to fear increased vandalism. Her reason was that the state of ruin was too horrible to fix. During the Great Depression, she had the cost estimate for repairs at $15,000, something she wasn't willing to pay for a landmark that did nothing but cause her property trouble. Adding to the ruination from neglect, the 1906 earthquake had destroyed around 60% of the smaller building. On December 21, 1960, the buildings were bulldozed.

SECTION IV: Salinas' Junior College

Many people think that Hartnell College has been a constant name, and even a constant campus, since it was started in 1920. The truth is that the college was founded under the name Salinas Junior College, and resembled nothing of its modern version. What is currently Hartnell College has been a history of constant change, not only to the name, but the campus itself.

In 1920, the Board of the Salinas Union High School decided to create a college on their campus. Their choice was important, because at the time there was no way for a person to get a college education in the Monterey County region. The nearest college to the central coast region of California was San Benito Junior College. Salinas Junior College was to be the 13th junior college in the state of California.

When Salinas Junior College was started, it peaked at an enrollment of 28, and then discontinued due to lack of increased enrollment. This was not unlike the first junior college in the region, William Hartnell's, which failed within two years of conception due to only 15 pupils enrolling.

However, unlike the first college, Salinas Junior College was able to try again. In the 1926-27 school year, Salinas Junior College was reopened. This time two boy's gym rooms from Salinas High School had been converted into classrooms for the new junior college which could accommodate 35 students. This vast improvement in the college's condition made it possible to thrive. In 1929 a new junior college wing was being added to Salinas High School, and Salinas Junior College had produced its first 5 graduates. Three of these graduates were successful enough to transfer to four-year colleges.

In 1935, Salinas Junior College had thirteen departments, as well as a school newspaper. A successful bond issue made possible the purchase of 15.3 acres on the west side of Homestead Avenue in between Alisal Street and Central Avenue. At the time, this was on the western edge of the city of Salinas. Though people were excited by the prospect of a new campus, it was not until April, 1937 that construction was completed. The buildings were located in very different places than they are on the modern campus. For example, an aerial photograph from 1940 shows that where the current library is today was once a racing track. This campus became the main campus, and would soon be joined by another.

In 1940, a large granite panther was added as a gift from the Class of 1940. This panther statue was created by the famed artist Raymond Puccinelli under commission of the WPA and Federal Arts Project. The idea for a panther statue as the symbol of Salinas Junior College came from Richard Werner, then president of the college. December 9, 1940 was the day that the Panther's unveiling ceremonies took place. It was nicknamed Oscar, and was also thought of as a sentinel, which was the inspiration for half of the name of the current school newspaper, Panther Sentinel. A time capsule was placed under Oscar to be opened on December 9, 2140, but the weight of the panther crushed and ruined the historic artifact.

In 1939 enrollment reached an amazing 883 students all due to the new location, and the help of buses that brought students from Aromas, Carmel, Gilroy, King City, Pacific Grove, Santa Cruz, and Watsonville. World War II changed Hartnell very dramatically. Before the war, enrollment was growing. However, the United States involvement in World War II caused the 1942 enrollment to drop to 131. Later, in 1944, enrollment had plummeted to merely 21 students. Nine faculty members were in the military service. After World War II, in 1946, Salinas Junior College attained 210 acres of land to build the Hartnell School of Agriculture and Mechanics. Ten buildings, which had formerly belonged to the Guayule Rubber Research Station, came along with the land. The land was given to the school district on the condition that it would educate veterans and other people interested in getting a vocational background. It was said that this Hartnell school surpassed all other schools in California when it came to buildings and equipment, which offered much hands-on experience that other schools couldn't.

It was not until 1948 that the name of Salinas Junior College changed to Hartnell College. In 1947 students petitioned for Salinas Junior College to honor William Hartnell, the founder of the first college in California, and the state's first educator. The change was approved by the Board of Trustees of the Salinas Union High School District on April 14, 1948. Their decision was effective starting July 1, 1948. With the creation of a new name came the creation of the Hartnell Junior College District in the Spring of 1949. Now the college would be able to serve students that were formerly outside of its district. Before this, Hartnell College had been a part of the Salinas Union High School District. Three schools were part of this district: Hartnell College, Hartnell A&M, and Salinas Evening Junior College. Eventually, Hartnell A&M became the East Campus for Hartnell College, and the Salinas Evening Junior College became Hartnell's evening courses.

The creation of a district and the name change were not the end of changes to the school, though. The O. P. Silliman Library was dedicated in 1949 and moved to the current building in 1959. It was an important addition due to the ornithology exhibits that Mr. Silliman had collected and willed to the college. A men's dormitory once existed on the campus, constructed in 1962, and housing its first students in the 1963 Spring Semester. To increase scientific learning and curiosity in the public, a Foucault pendulum was added as part of the T. R. Merrill Hall project in 1964. The Merrill Hall project also included a complete science building and a planetarium as well as an inspirational science sculpture by Robert Butterbaugh. In 1987 the Gleason Center in King City was opened after Villeroy Gleason bequeathed his home to Hartnell College. As this report is being written, development is under way for a small campus in King City in order to facilitate higher learning in that community.

SECTION V: The Heroic Namesake

Hartnell was a man who was loyal to his family and to his faith. He started the first junior college west of the Mississippi. He translated laws and documents that helped shape the history of California. Without his help, the founding of a bilingual California would have never come to be. He was connected to many famous names in history, and was held in high esteem by these people.

Hartnell Community College Governing Board Policy #2305 states that for a facility to be named, that name must honor a person who has made extraordinary contributions either in an academic or administrative manner. William Hartnell meets both of these requirements. He served what would become the Hartnell Community College District in both administrative and academic capacities. He managed and taught at his school. He faithfully served the missions of the area as their superintendent.

Hartnell is not only deserving of having Salinas' junior college as a namesake, he deserves to have his life history accurately recorded and his memory treasured within the local community. Hartnell's contributions to this community played a significant role in setting the foundation for what we now know as our local history. Not much is known about him because he wasn't responsible for any radical changes. Instead, he was a reliable and consistent pillar of strength for the community. Ever ready to work on behalf of the local people. Without a doubt, he was a significant character in not only Californian and Mexican history, but in United States history as well.

APPENDIX I: Bibliography

"About Hartnell College." Hartnell College Web Page: http://www.hartnell.cc.ca.us/about_hartnell/index.html

Addison, Claud. "Junior College Moved to Campus at 'End' of Alisal Street in '37." Salinas Californian 25 April 1966.

Brazil, Eric. "Old Hartnell Destroyed to Save Land." Salinas Californian 19 December, 1960.

"Bulldozer Ends State's First College." San Francisco Examiner 22 December, 1960.

"Campus Reminiscences -- Adobe Education Promps New Facilities." The Panther Sentinel 30 October, 1964.

Dakin, Susanna Bryant. The Lives of William Hartnell. Standford: Stanford University Press, 1949.

Dennis, Jennie, and Denzil Verardo. The Salinas Valley, An Illustrated History. Chatsworth: Windsor.

Dufour, Stuart. "Hartnell College Returns." Sierra Educational News January, 1949.

"Education Started With Hartnell College." Salinas Californian 17 July, 1941.

Gartshore, Bonnie. "The History of Hartnell College." Alta Vista 31 July, 1994.

Gartshore, Bonnie. "The Man Behind the College Name." Alta Vista 31 July, 1994.

Goodhue, Norma H. "Picture of Early College is Sought." Los Angeles Times 9 January, 1949.

"Hartnell A&M Serves Wide Geographic Area." Salinas Californian 28 December, 1949.

"Hartnell A and M Program Has Own College Campus." Panther Sentinel, Souvenir Pages 1953.

"Hartnell Class of '40 Donated Panther Statues." Panther Sentinel, Souvenir Pages 1953.

"The Hartnell College Campus." [United States]: n.p., n.d.

Hartnell College 1999 Governing Board Policy #2305

"Hartnell College Sign Replaced Salinas JC Sign In July, 1948." Panther Sentinel, Souvenir Pages 1953.

"Hartnell College is Your Best Choice--Past, Present and Future!" Progress Edition--South County Newspapers 27 October, 1999.

"Hartnell Family History." Hartnell College Web Page http://www.hartnell.cc.ca.us/foundation/family_history.html

"Hartnell Named for Pioneer State Educator." Salinas Californian 15 May, 1973.

"Hartnell Named in Honor of Founder Of First College in State in 1833." Salinas Californian 2 March, 1953.

"Hartnell Name Honors Founder of First College in California." Panther Sentinel, Souvenir Pages 1953.

"Historic Name of W.E.P. Hartnell Returns to Local Educational Scene." Salinas Californian 1 June, 1949.

"History of the District and the College." Hartnell College 80th Anniversary 1999-2000 Catalogue. 1-2.

"A History of the Hartnells." Hartnell College Spring 2000 Schedule of Classes. Ed. Paulette U. Bumbalough. 95.

Johnsen, Shirley Sales. A Biographical Study of William Hartnell, A Prominent Californian. San Luis Obispo: California State Polytechnic College, 1965.

Johnston, Robert B. "Did W.E.P. Hartnell Establish the First College in California?" Monterey County Historical Society Website.

Johnston, Robert B. Hartnell College: A Chapter in Old Monterey County History. [United States]: n.p., n.d.

Johnston, Robert B. William Hartnell: Pioneer Trader -- Rancher -- Educator. [United States]: n.p., n.d.

Last Will and Testament of W.E.P. Hartnell. Monterey, State of Upper California.

Lemos, John B. "Creation of New Hartnell College District Widens Horizon for School." Salinas Californian June, 1949.

"Merrill Hall Dedication Slated Sunday." Salinas Californian 3 April, 1964.

Meyer, Carl. "Rancho Patrocinio del Alisal." Californian Heritage, An Anthology of History and Literature. [United States]: n.p., 1971.

Monterey County Historical Society. Local History Vault.

Nordstrand, Dave. "Remembering Hartnell." Salinas Californian 14 March, 1998.

Ogden, Adele. "Hides and Tallow." California Historical Society Quarterly 6.3 (1927): 254-264.

"Renaming College Requires Reflection, Diverse Opinions." Salinas Californian 16 March, 1998.

Rodriguez, Rick. "Old Pendulum Back in Swing." Valley Today 14 February, 1978.

Ruhlen, Frances. "Hartnell, California's First College, Covered by Government Census 105 Years Ago." Salinas Independant 23 February, 1940.

"School Salaries Up; JC Named Hartnell." Salinas Californian 15 April, 1948.

Schwartz, Doug. "Hartnell History Could Serve as Background for Junior College" Salinas: n.p., 26, Apirl, 1938.

"Science Symbol Almost Ready for Ceremony." Panther Sentinel n.d.

Silacel, Albert H. "Junior College History Marked by Long Effort." Salinas Index Journal 26 October 1939.

"The Story Behind Hartnell College." [United States]: n.p., n.d.

Vera, Dorothy H. "Hartnell College Once Skirted the Hills." Salinas Californian 11 November, 1967.

Vera, Dorothy H. "Hartnell -- The Man Who Built California's First College." Salinas Californian 11 May, 1963.

Vera, Dorothy H. "The Tale of the Hartnell Panther." Salinas Californian 14 May, 1966.

"Welcome Home, Alumni!" The Battery Souvenir Edition 10 October, 1941.

Wells, Evelyn. "Mustard Bowers, Chapter VI." San Francisco Call and Post 1 May, 1920.

Wells, Evelyn. "Salinas Colegio de San Jose, Chapter VII." San Francisco Call and Post 3 May 1920.

APPENDIX II: Further Information

I hope that the information presented here has been helpful to you in discovering America's past. I am a history lover, and have found William Hartnell's life and history quite interesting. It is disturbing to me that there are those who would soil the name William Hartnell in order to accomplish their personal goal. They would change the name of the college without bothering to learn anything about it's history or about the man after whom it is named. Fortunately, community support has been behind Hartnell, but these individuals are hard at work in the classrooms. This group includes anti-Hartnell professors, who are a powerful force behind the spreading of lies and misinformation. I hope that these anti-Hartnell efforts will not gain momentum and support during the coming years.

Controversy aside, there is the matter of historical accuracy. There is one thing that the anti-Hartnell people preach that I do agree with, "Do not blindly believe everything you read, just because it is written in the history books". While I have put a lot of effort into this document, I would not have you believe it blindly either. Instead, read it, conduct your own research, and arrive at your own conclusions. Sometimes, to learn the truth about history, you must take the time to find it yourself.

Finding specific information about Hartnell can be a bit difficult. One of the best sources is the book The Lives of William Hartnell by Susanna Bryant Dakin. Once you have seen the information from this book, you will gain a better understanding of Hartnell. You can also find information about Hartnell at the Monterey County Historical Society. While I support Hartnell, I think it is necessary to learn about the people who are against his historic legacy. Review their resources and see what they have to say. Compare the differing views, and arrive at your own conclusions.

If you need further help in finding information, or if you would just like to discuss Hartnell, I can be reached via email I would be happy to answer any questions you might have, to the best of my knowledge.

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